Manufacturing industry refers to those industries which involve in the manufacturing and processing of items and indulge in either creation of new commodities or in value addition. The manufacturing industry accounts for a significant share of the industrial sector in developed countries. The final products can either serve as a finished good for sale to customers or as intermediate goods used in the production process.
Evolution of the manufacturing industry:
Manufacturing industries came into being with the occurrence of technological and socio-economic transformations in the Western countries in the 18th-19th century. This was widely known as industrial revolution. It began in Britain and replaced the labor intensive textile production with mechanization and use of fuels.
Working of manufacturing industry:
Manufacturing industries are the chief wealth producing sectors of an economy. These industries use various technologies and methods widely known as manufacturing process management. Manufacturing industries are broadly categorized into engineering industries, construction industries, electronics industries, chemical industries, energy industries, textile industries, food and beverage industries, metalworking industries, plastic industries, transport and telecommunication industries.
Manufacturing industries are important for an economy as they employ a huge share of the labor force and produce materials required by sectors of strategic importance such as national infrastructure and defense. However, not all manufacturing industries are beneficial to the nation as some of them generate negative externalities with huge social costs. The cost of letting such industries flourish may even exceed the benefits generated by them.