Invest In Dogecoin UK – How To Invest In Dogecoin For Beginners

Fact Checked by Gary McFarlane

There is a lot of hype surrounding Dogecoin in the UK, thanks to various celebrity endorsements and subsequently – its huge rise in value. If you want to access this speculative digital token, it’s important to do so with a reputable platform behind you.

Today we explain how to invest in Dogecoin in the UK – which includes full reviews of the best brokers to access the market alongside a detailed step-by-step walkthrough of how to complete your purchase in under five minutes.

#1 Broker to Invest in Dogecoin UK – eToro

1
$50Exclusive promotion
Our score10
  • Invest in a wide range of cryptocurrencies
  • Ability to copy more experienced investors and their decisions
  • eToro crypto wallet included which makes it beginner-friendly
0% Commissionstart TradingOur score 10

How To Invest in Dogecoin UK – Choose a Broker

See below a sneak peek at the best places to invest in Dogecoin in the UK:

  • eToro – Overall Best Place to Invest in Dogecoin UK
  • Coinbase – Great Way to Invest in Dogecoin for Beginners
  • OKEx – Quality Low-Cost Dogecoin Trading Platform UK
  • Binance – Top-Rated Dogecoin Platform UK for Experienced Traders

You will find a review of the above-listed platforms further down in this guide on how to invest in Dogecoin UK.

How to Invest in Dogecoin UK – A Quick Guide For 2021

We offer a more detailed guide on how to invest in Dogecoin in the UK later. Nevertheless, below you will see a quick run-through that will see you complete your DOGE investment in just four simple steps.

  • Step 1: Open an Account with eToro – Once you arrive on eToro’s homepage, you can easily sign up by clicking ‘Join Now’. Next, enter your full name, home address, national insurance number, mobile number, and a unique username and password.
  • Step 2: Upload Your ID – Before you can request a withdrawal or make a large deposit ($2,250, which is around £1,625) you need to complete the KYC procedure. The same goes for any regulated broker, as they must adhere to AML laws. For this, send a copy of your photo ID – such as a passport, and a recent bank statement so that eToro is able to validate your address.
  • Step 3: Deposit Funds – When making a deposit to invest in Dogecoin, you will pay a small fee of 0.5% to swap GBP to USD. There are various payment methods accepted to fund your account. This includes credit and debit cards and bank transfers. You may also choose e-wallets such as Skrill or PayPal.
  • Step 4: Invest in Dogecoin UK – The eToro website is designed for both newbies and seasoned traders alike, so you should find locating DOGE tokens a breeze. The easiest way to find any asset is to use the search box. Once found, hit ‘Trade’ and you can place a buy order to invest in Dogecoin UK. Hit ‘Open Trade’ when you are happy to complete your purchase. This broker allows orders as low as $25, so beginners can take a slow and steady approach to this volatile marketplace.

eToro supports fractional purchases, which is why the minimum order amount starts from just $25. Furthermore, the platform is beginner-friendly, offers low fees, and will store your DOGE tokens at no extra charge. You will find a full review of what eToro has to offer next.

Cryptoassets are highly volatile unregulated investment products. No EU investor protection. 67% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.

Where to Buy Dogecoin in the UK – Full Broker Reviews

Once you’re comfortable with how to invest in Dogecoin UK, you will need to find a suitable platform from which to buy it. As such, in the sections below, we have reviewed the very best Dogecoin brokers in the cryptocurrency space. This covers a wide scope of aspects, including everything from fees and listed markets to features and regulatory standing.

1. eToro – Overall Best Place to Invest in Dogecoin UK

bitcoin today

eToro serves millions of clients from over 100+ countries. The platform is easy to get around, so placing orders is a breeze. When signing up with this broker, you will need to complete the KYC process, which involves sending in two forms of documentation to prove your identity and address. We found that this takes a matter of minutes from start to finish. Another added convenience is the ability to add funds to your account with a variety of UK payment types. This includes credit and debit cards by Visa and Mastercard, e-wallets such as PayPal and Neteller, and also bank transfers.

In terms of fees, there is a small exchange charge of 0.5% on your deposit. This is because the platform operates in US dollars. Compared with other Dogecoin brokers we reviewed, this is very competitive. Additionally, it saves you from swapping GBP to USD yourself via a third party. This provider keeps costs low as you will only pay the spread to buy and sell Dogecoin and many other assets. This starts from just 0.75% per slide. If you would prefer to begin your cryptocurrency adventures cautiously, you can invest in Dogecoin in the UK for as little as $25 each time.

We mentioned the need to complete the KYC process. This is industry-standard for any regulated brokerage. eToro is approved and regulated by the FCA in the UK, and also ASIC (Australia) and CySEC (Cyprus). As such, you know the provider is legitimate and follows the rules and standards laid out by the aforementioned regulatory bodies. Should you wish to diversify later, you will find a wide range of other cryptocurrencies too. This is inclusive of major tokens like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Litecoin, and more. More recent additions include Enjin, Aave, Spark, Basic Attention, and Shiba Inu – to name a few.

Ever thought about the prospect of buying your digital investments passively? If so, one of the most popular features offered by eToro is Copy Trading. As the name suggests, this entails investing in a pro trader and copying them like-for-like, order-by-order. For instance, let’s say you allocate $1,000 to JoeCrypto123 and they risk 20% of their available equity on Dogecoin and 10% on Stellar. Your portfolio will show $200 dedicated to DOGE and $100 in XLM tokens. When they sell, this will be reflected in your own account. Finally, the minimum deposit is just $200 at eToro, which is around £145.

Pros

  • Invest in cryptocurrencies on a spread-only basis
  • Buy thousands of UK and international stocks at 0% commission
  • Minimum investment per trade from just $25
  • Supports debit/credit cards, e-wallets, and local bank transfers
  • Regulated by the FCA, CySEC, and ASIC
  • Used by over 20 million people
  • Perfect for beginners
  • Social and copy trading tools

Cons

  • Perhaps too basic for technical traders
  • No support for MT4 or MT5

Cryptoassets are highly volatile unregulated investment products. No EU investor protection. 67% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.

2. Coinbase – Best Way to Invest in Dogecoin for Beginners

Buy MANA at Coinbase

Coinbase offers a user-friendly experience for beginners and has around 68 million verified users from around the world. The website is simple to navigate – so you can invest in Dogecoin in the UK with ease. Importantly, you can fund your account with fiat money here, but note you must upload the aforementioned documents to complete the KYC process. Accepted payment methods include Visa and Mastercard. However, you will be charged 3.99% to buy DOGE tokens using a debit card. This is quite the contrast compared with the 0.5% stipulated by eToro.

You may also opt to avoid this cost by making a deposit using a UK bank transfer, but you should note that this will delay your ability to invest in Dogecoin by a few days. We checked out other applicable fees and found a standard commission of 1.49% – which means a $1,000 investment would set you back $14.90. As such, it has to be said, this platform isn’t the cheapest place to access the cryptocurrency markets. On the other hand, there isn’t a lack of market variety. Alternative digital currencies comprise well-known tokens such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Cardano, Binance Coin. Smaller offerings include Pofi, Daily, Alias, and more.

coinbase review

Coinbase stores 98% of all digital assets in geographically separated and encrypted cold wallets. For further peace of mind, you can set up two-factor authentication. This requires a one-time password via Google Authenticator or Duo. It’s also recommended by the provider to secure your email, reset your passphrase frequently, and protect your cloud storage accounts with 2FA too. If you want the convenience of managing your portfolio and investing in Dogecoin on the move, you can download the Coinbase mobile app for free.

Pros

  • One of the most popular cryptocurrency exchanges
  • Approximately 68 million users
  • Supports instant debit card purchases
  • Dozens of digital currencies to choose from
  • Institutional-grade security practices

Cons

  • Debit card deposits are expensive at 3.99%
  • You will pay a standard trading commission of 1.49%

at eToro, UK’s #1 Broker

Cryptoassets are highly volatile unregulated investment products. No EU investor protection

3. OKEx – Quality Low-Cost Dogecoin Exchange

If you are looking to invest in Dogecoin in the UK whilst also having access to hundreds of cryptocurrency pairs – look no further. This platform has over 400 pairs to choose from, inclusive of large-cap options such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Cardano, and Polkadot, to name a few. At the other end of the scale, you will find tokens like Echoin, Swerve, NDN Link, Convergence, and more. The standard commission charged is 0.10% of your order value. Notably, OKEx rewards high-volume investors with a lower fee. You might also look to purchase some of the provider’s native OKB tokens, which will reduce this commission rate even more.

To get started, you need to link your account to a valid UK mobile number and bank account, as well as completing the KYC process. You may fund your account using a UK debit or credit card, bank transfer, or using some digital assets you already hold. In the case of the latter, there is no need to validate your identity with documentation. On the main platform, newbies will find the ‘Learn’ section useful – as it features various beginner tutorials on almost every aspect of the cryptocurrency sector. This includes industry analysis, trading ideas, and glossaries.

Are you looking to invest, swap, and access your account on the go? If so, OKEx offers a free mobile application available for both iPhone and Android users. This interface caters to both advanced investors as well as newbies. The application allows you to view the gains and losses of your portfolio’s performance over a set time chosen by you. Securing your account with 2FA is mandatory here. Furthermore, this platform provides industry-leading security tools such as anti-phishing codes, and a one-time password feature using Google Authenticator, and mobile verification.

Pros

  • Trusted crypto exchange with over 20 million users
  • More than 400+ digital currency pairs
  • Buy and sell cryptocurrencies with a debit/credit card or bank transfer
  • Low commissions that start from 0.1%
  • Fully-fledged mobile app on Android and iOS
  • Great reputation and highly secure

Cons

  • Debit/credit card fees could be more competitive
  • Derivative products too complex for beginners

at eToro, UK’s #1 Broker

Cryptoassets are highly volatile unregulated investment products. No EU investor protection

4. Binance – Top-Rated Dogecoin Platform UK for Experienced Traders

Binance is the biggest crypto exchange in the world in terms of trading volume. This is one of the best places to invest in Dogecoin for people with a little more experience. The first thing to mention is that this platform allows you to buy DOGE tokens with a credit or debit card and accepts a long list of fiat currencies. The provider stipulates a charge of 1.8% for this payment type, which is less pricey than Coinbase but not as cheap as eToro. Notably, at this time, bank account deposits/withdrawals are temporarily suspended for UK clients.

You will pay commission here to buy and sell crypto – which stands at 0.10%. If opting for a credit/debit card over a crypto deposit, you will not be able to withdraw an amount over 0.06 BTC before completing the KYC process. As such, you may as well finish the verification procedure when signing up. Other digital assets to invest in comprise Bitcoin, Ethereum, Cardano, Aave, Enjin, Polygon, Terra, Chainlink, Solana, Zcash, and many more. For those of you who want to store your own assets, you can check out Trust Wallet – which is backed by Binance. This free app allows you to transfer tokens between the main account and your mobile.

binance review

This guide found plenty of features to aid you in predicting the best time to invest in Dogecoin, or indeed when it might be a good time to cash out your investment. Trading tools include TradingView compatibility, order books, popular indicators, adaptable price charts, and various timeframes. You can also easily limit the wallet addresses on your safe list by utilizing Withdrawal Address Management. This offers you and your assets extra protection against unauthorized access to your account. You can also use the aforementioned 2FA.

Pro

  • Facilitates billions of dollars in daily trading volume
  • Supports hundreds of digital asset pairs
  • Deposits via UK debit/credit cards
  • Trading commission starts at just 0.1% per slide
  • Offers crypto savings accounts
  • Ideal for both beginners and experienced traders alike

Cons

  • Not all supported cryptocurrencies can be purchased with a debit/credit card
  • No e-wallet deposits or withdrawals

at eToro, UK’s #1 Broker

Cryptoassets are highly volatile unregulated investment products. No EU investor protection

How to Invest in Dogecoin – Step-by-Step Walkthrough

By now, you should have a much clearer vision of how to invest in Dogecoin in the UK. As we said, the most secure and straight-cut way to access the cryptocurrency markets is to sign up with a trustworthy platform that is regulated by UK financial authority the FCA.

As such, for this walkthrough, you will see instructions on how to sign up with eToro. The reason for this is that the broker allows you to invest in Dogecoin and many other cryptocurrencies from just $25 on a spread-only basis.

Step 1: Open a Broker Account to Invest in Dogecoin

Complete the first step of the sign-up process by clicking the ‘Join Now’ button and filling in all of the information required within the registration box.

This includes your first and last name, mobile number, email address, and other details such as your national insurance number and a little about your knowledge of investing.

how to join etoro

When you are satisfied with the information you have entered, you can confirm everything and validate your email address and mobile – as instructed by eToro.

Cryptoassets are highly volatile unregulated investment products. Proceed at your own risk.

Step 2: Upload Some Documents to Validate Your Identity

To invest in Dogecoin in the UK without deposit and withdrawal limitations, you will need to upload some documents. This is so that eToro can comply with AML regulations and validate the personal details you have entered.

Documentation needed to complete the KYC process includes:

  • ID: A clear colored copy of your passport, driving license, or other accepted photo ID.
  • Address: A bank statement or utility bill dated within 3 months. This must show your name, address, and the date the letter was issued to you.

Validating your ID and address should take less than 1-2 minutes from start to finish at eToro.

Step 3: Add Some Funds to Your UK Broker Account

You are another step closer to investing in Dogecoin. Next, you need to add some funds to your complete account. As we mentioned in our earlier review. This platform is super easy to use and supports a wide range of payment types.

eToro is compatible with credit and debit cards from Mastercard and Visa, UK bank transfers, and also e-wallets like PayPal. The fee to deposit is just 0.5%, as the site is US dollar-denominated. This is highly competitive and means you don’t have to exchange GBP to USB somewhere else first.

Step 4: Locate Dogecoin Tokens

Locating Dogecoin tokens is easy at eToro, as it’s a simple case of using the search facility on the main dashboard.

As you can see from the above, we began typing Dogecoin and a list of markets appeared. Hit ‘Trade’ when you’ve found the correct asset.

Step 5: Place an Order to Invest in Dogecoin

Now you can invest in Dogecoin in the UK by creating a buy order at eToro. You can begin by entering the amount you wish to allocate to DOGE tokens.

Here we are looking to purchase the minimum amount of just $25, which at the current price of $0.31 gets us around 79 units of Dogecoin. This is a great way for beginners to invest in Dogecoin without risking too much capital. Moderate amounts or not, it’s still crucial you understand the inner workings of this marketplace before diving in.

Finally, click on the ‘Open Trade’ button to invest in Dogecoin!

How to Sell Dogecoin in the UK

The vast majority of people looking to invest in Dogecoin in the UK will want to cash out at some time in the future – for more than they initially paid. How you are able to do this will very much depend on the platform from which you made your purchase.

For instance:

  • At FCA regulated broker eToro, you can invest in Dogecoin with a simple buy order.
  • You can also store and sell (cash out) DOGE tokens on a 24/7 basis.
  • To cash out your investment, simply create a sell order.
  • eToro will then fund your account with the proceeds.

At an unregulated exchange, this process can be long-winded. It often involves transferring digital funds from an existing wallet to a third-party platform and then swapping your DOGE tokens to GBP – before requesting a withdrawal. eToro offers an end-to-end investment solution, as you can invest, store and cash out under one roof.

Different Ways to Invest in Dogecoin in the UK

You now know how to invest in Dogecoin in the UK. But, you also need to pay consideration to where you might make your purchase. As we mentioned above, choosing a regulated brokerage makes cashing out easier.

We offer a brief explanation of both Dogecoin brokers and exchanges below.

Invest in Dogecoin UK via an Online Broker

Regulated online brokers create peace of mind for people looking to invest in Dogecoin in the UK. This is especially the case for platforms regulated by the FCA, the body responsible for maintaining stability and enforcing rules surrounding fee transparency and such.

  • eToro is regulated by the FCA, ASIC, and CySEC and is also approved by US organizations FINRA and the SEC.
  • Many regulated platforms support fiat deposits and withdrawals, which is a bonus for people with no existing digital holdings.
  • This type of online broker also adheres to strict rules on ethical conduct and completing the KYC process.

Investing in cryptocurrencies does not come without risk, so legitimacy is a good place to start when looking for a good place to make your first Dogecoin purchase.

Invest in Dogecoin UK via a Crypto Exchange

There is no shortage of crypto exchanges offering Dogecoin to UK clients – the problem is many are not approved by the FCA. Without this regulation, you won’t know whether the company you are handing your payment details and personal information to is above-board.

It’s also important to note that decentralized exchanges that support fiat deposits using a debit card can sometimes charge hefty fees. We cover potential charges shortly for any beginners so that you know what to expect.

Is Dogecoin a Good Investment?

Whether it is good to invest in Dogecoin in the UK will depend on various aspects, such as your experience, appetite for risk, and understanding of digital assets like this.

In other words, investing in cryptocurrencies is highly speculative. It’s important to have a strong understanding of how the market works before going ahead and throwing your life savings at it. You can start by learning the ropes and allocating small amounts via a broker that supports fractional investments.

With that said, you will see below some of the standout characteristics of Dogecoin, which may help you decide whether it’s a good investment for you.

Online Communities and Celebrities Boost the Value of Dogecoin

Dogecoin started as a parody of a meme, so was considered a bit of a joke. Despite this, years after its release, many online groups, influencers, and celebrities have gotten behind this digital asset and their opinion on it went viral. In turn, this has boosted the market value of DOGE tokens.

In case this recent interest in Dogecoin has passed you by, see below:

  • Elon Musk influenced the market value of Dogecoin in a massive way via social media. The Tesla CEO famously tweeted a parody of a Vogue cover, with the magazine’s usual title replaced with ‘Dogue’. This caused a price increase of 800% in Dogecoin!
  • On another occasion, Dogecoin rose by 44% after Elon Musk tweeted ‘Dogecoin is the ‘people’s cryptocurrency’.
  • Snoop Dogg also attributed to an increase in the value of Dogecoin after engaging in tweets with Elon Musk. The rapper caught the attention of millions of followers by altering the image of one of his iconic album covers, replacing the original title with ‘Snoop Doge’, in support of the digital currency.
  • KISS rocker Gene Simmons once stated that he owns six figures worth of DOGE tokens, referring to himself as the ‘God of Dogecoin’.
  • Billionaire Mark Cuban, a well-known technology investor, stated on social media that he would buy Dogecoin over a lottery ticket if he had to choose.
  • Famously, in a video challenge that went viral, TikTok users managed to push the value of DOGE tokens up by 1,900% in just two days in July 2020.
  • Kevin Jonas explained the value of Dogecoin to his 5.3 million Twitter followers. This caused DOGE tokens to rise to their highest value at the time.

When reading up on how to invest in Dogecoin in the UK, it’s important you reign in your emotions. As we touched on, one of the first things to do is educate yourself on the ins and outs of digital assets. This is so that you understand what you are purchasing and how the market works.

It’s also wise to be cautious when reading online hype surrounding a cryptocurrency. Some celebrities or groups may have an ulterior motive for wanting to drive the price of Dogecoin in one direction or another. On the other hand, once you understand how the space works, you may be able to try to use these price spikes to your advantage.

Dogecoin and Its Many Diamond Hands

When researching how to invest in Dogecoin in the UK, you may have seen the phrase ‘diamond hands’. This is slang used to refer to someone who purchases digital assets intending to hold long-term. This category of investor has a high tolerance for risk and volatility and isn’t concerned with what happens in the short term.

For anyone unaware of this terminology, see further explanation below:

  • The slang word HODL means to buy a cryptocurrency like Dogecoin and hold on to it long-term.
  • There are different types of HODLers such as emerald, diamond, gold, steel, and more.
  • A diamond hands HODLer is someone whose trading strategy is to not sell under any circumstances – even if the price of the tokens experiences a sharp decline.
  • The idea is to hold on until the tokens become valuable (like a diamond).

Dogecoin has heaps of diamond hands, but what does this mean for the cryptocurrency? The more people that buy digital assets with no intention of selling, riding out the storm when prices drop – the less likely DOGE tokens are to collapse. If this sounds like a strategy that you’d like to try yourself, be aware that, for a beginner, the process can be daunting.

It will mean standing your ground even when all analysis points to potential gains from cashing out. The easiest way for newbies to HODL is to adopt a slightly modified version and grow a portfolio in small amounts over time. Preferably, when tokens are ‘cheap’ in comparison to recent highs.

eToro allows investments as low as $25 to invest in Dogecoin in the UK. As we mentioned, this is only around £18. You should never risk more than you can realistically afford to lose. Furthermore, you should always perform your own in-depth research into the market in question.

Dogecoin Has Potential to Head to The Moon

A common rallying cry in this industry is ‘to the moon’ – which often means a sharp price increase may be imminent – or is called for. Dogecoin has been around since the end of 2013. However, it’s only in recent years that DOGE tokens have been valued at higher than a fraction of a cent.

dogecoin price today

As we mentioned, supply and demand as well as retail investors HODLing can have an effect on the performance of a cryptocurrency.

For instance,

  • Had you looked to invest in Dogecoin in the UK in early May 2015, you would have paid $0.0002.
  • At the time of writing, a DOGE token is worth $0.30.
  • This is a difference of over 134,000%.
  • Although this cryptocurrency still hasn’t risen to $1 yet, there are tons of online groups calling for this to happen.
  • In the past year alone, DOGE tokens have increased by a whopping 10,000%.

As we mentioned, celebrity endorsements also play a huge role in retail investors flocking to purchase DOGE tokens – which also leads to a rise in value. Speculation is what investing in cryptocurrencies is all about – so make sure you fully comprehend every aspect of how to invest in Dogecoin in the UK before diving in.

Is it Risky to Invest in Dogecoin in the UK?

Yes. There is always risk involved in buying and selling digital assets, as their price often fluctuates based on speculation. As such, investing in Dogecoin in the UK shouldn’t be taken lightly.

What goes up can also come down. When reading stories of Dogecoin and its meteoric rise in value – remember there is nothing to stop this crypto asset from fading away like many others before it. That’s why it’s so important to always conduct in-depth research on any market you want to allocate money to.

What is the Cost of Investing in Dogecoin?

There are some fees that cryptocurrency investors expect to pay. It’s important to understand the cost involved in investing in Dogecoin in the UK, as this will differ depending on your choice of platform.

You will find the most common fees below:

  • Commission Fees: Commission fees are commonplace. After all, brokers need to cover their losses. Always study the fee table at a potential platform before joining. Let’s offer you an example of the disparity found whilst researching the best places to invest in Dogecoin. eToro only charges the spread – instead of commission, which starts from 0.75%. On the other hand, Coinbase charges 1.49%.
  • Deposit Fees: The deposit fee charged by platforms will usually depend on the payment type. Some providers charge eye-watering fees to fund an account using a debit card. For instance, Coinbase charges 3.99% when taking this route, eToro only stipulates 0.5%.

The lower the fees are charged by a Dogecoin broker, then the better it will be for your potential gains. As you can see, if you fund your account with $1,000 (approximately £725) using a debit card at eToro, you will pay the broker $5 (around £3.60). At the crypto exchange Coinbase, the fee for the same deposit method and amount would set you back $39.90!

How to Invest in Dogecoin UK: Conclusion

It’s never been more simple to invest in Dogecoin in the UK. With this cryptocurrency’s rising popularity amongst retail investors, there are now heaps of platforms offering access to this digital asset. We reviewed crypto exchanges as well as regulated brokers and found that the latter is the safest and more convenient option for beginners.

eToro came out the best place to invest in Dogecoin. The broker is approved, licensed, and regulated by the FCA, CySEC, and ASIC and only charges the spread to buy and sell digital assets.

Furthermore, you can purchase as little as $25 worth of DOGE tokens, which prevents you from overexposing yourself to such a volatile marketplace. The provider supports many deposit methods, including UK credit and debit cards, bank transfers, and popular e-wallets like PayPal and Neteller, and only charges 0.5% to swap GBP for USD.

1
$50Exclusive promotion
Our score10
  • Invest in a wide range of cryptocurrencies
  • Ability to copy more experienced investors and their decisions
  • eToro crypto wallet included which makes it beginner-friendly
0% Commissionstart TradingOur score 10

FAQs

How to invest in Dogecoin UK?

What is the best place to invest in Dogecoin?

Should I buy Dogecoin?

Is it safe to invest in Dogecoin?

How can I cash out my Dogecoin Investment?

 

About Kane Pepi PRO INVESTOR

Kane Pepi writes for several high profile publications such as InsideBitcoins, the Motely Fool, and Learnbonds. Based in Malta, Kane is extremely skilled at complex subjects related to financial matters - including a Bachelor’s Degree in Finance, a Master’s Degree in Financial Crime, and actively engaged in Doctorate Degree research, for the money laundering threats of the blockchain economy.