With the help of mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector, the banks can achieve significant growth in their operations and minimize their expenses to a considerable extent. Another important advantage behind this kind of merger is that in this process, competition is reduced because merger eliminates competitors from the banking industry.
Mergers and acquisitions in banking sector are forms of horizontal merger because the merging entities are involved in the same kind of business or commercial activities. Sometimes, non-banking financial institutions are also merged with other banks if they provide similar type of services.
Through mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector, the banks look for strategic benefits in the banking sector. They also try to enhance their customer base.
In the context of mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector, it can be reckoned that size does matter and growth in size can be achieved through mergers and acquisitions quite easily. Growth achieved by taking assistance of the mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector may be described as inorganic growth. Both government banks and private sector banks are adopting policies for mergers and acquisitions.
In many countries, global or multinational banks are extending their operations through mergers and acquisitions with the regional banks in those countries. These mergers and acquisitions are named as cross-border mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector or international mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector. By doing this, global banking corporations are able to place themselves into a dominant position in the banking sector, achieve economies of scale, as well as garner market share.
Mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector have the capacity to ensure efficiency, profitability and synergy. They also help to form and grow shareholder value.
In some cases, financially distressed banks are also subject to takeovers or mergers in the banking sector and this kind of merger may result in monopoly and job cuts.
Deregulation in the financial market, market liberalization, economic reforms, and a number of other factors have played an important function behind the growth of mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector. Nevertheless, there are many challenges that are still to be overcome through appropriate measures.
Mergers and acquisitions in banking sector are controlled or regulated by the apex financial authority of a particular country. For example, the mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector of India are overseen by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
Following are some of the important mergers and acquisitions that took place in the banking sector of the United States: