Agrarian reform and rural development are the inseparable components that promote the economic and social conditions of rural people of a country. They work together to improve the livelihoods of rural people.
Agrarian reform is an extensive change, primarily necessary to improve the agrarian performance of land. Agrarian reform is generally initiated by the government through the process of redistribution of agricultural land. The other major activities of agrarian reform include training, credit measures and land consolidation. It can be specified as the total redirection of the agricultural system of a country.
Agrarian reform stresses not only on the improvement of land performance but is also concerned with the distribution of inputs and marketting of the agricultural produce. Agrarian reform also establishes a relationship between the economic and social structure of a nation. The concept of agrarian reform also entails changes to existing agricultural policies.
Agrarian reform plays a significant role in Russian economy. Agrarian reform facilitated the industrialization process in Russia. Russia's economic development is strongly related to the country's agrarian reform. Although before Bolshevik revolution took place in Russia, agrarian reform was a matter of controversy.
To improve social and economical conditions of rural people, Government designs several plans and programs. These programs are normally initiated through the local authorities, NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) and various international development organizations.
About three quarters (900 million people) of the world's poor people manage to survive in rural areas. For their livelihood, they mostly depend on natural resources and access to land. Insecure access to land is considered as one of the main causes for their poverty.
Since the International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development at Porto Alegre, Brazil (commencing from 7 to 10 March, 2006), attempts were made over and over again, to help the poor in securing their land, agricultural inputs and technology. Many countries put agrarian reform into practice. Some of them have got success and some have failed. For an appreciable number of poor rural farmers, secure access to land is still distant from reality.
Despite substantial progress in food production, food security remains a problem to many countries in the world. Agrarian reform and rural development are strongly interlinked. It is hard to support rural development without sufficient access to land, water and necessary resources.
To rejuvenate rural communities of the world, an improved commitment to agrarian reform and rural development is necessary. This can be achieved through the recognition of new challenges and options.
In International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, the participants have agreed upon some common points regarding basic necessities for rural development of a country. These are as follows: